IRAN ART EXHIBITION: ONE OF THE HAND-WOVEN PRODUCTS OF IRAN IS TERMEH
Termeh is a hand-woven cloth of Iran, primarily produced in the Yazd province. Weaving Termeh requires good wool with tall fibers. It is woven by an expert with the assistance of a worker called “Goushvareh-kesh”. Weaving Termeh is a sensitive, careful, and time- consuming process; a good weaver can produce only 25 to 30 centimeters in a day. The background colors, which are used in Termehes, are jujube red, light red, green, orange, and black. It has been admired throughout history: Greek historians commented on the beauty of Persian weavings in the Achaemenian (532 BC), Ashkani (222 BC), and Sasanidae (226-641 AD) periods and the famous Chinese tourist Hoan Tesang admired it.
After Islam’s arrival in Iran, the Persian weaving arts were greatly developed, especially during the Safavid period (1502-1736 AD), during which time Zarbaf and Termeh weaving techniques were both significantly refined. Due to the difficulty of producing this fabric and the advent of mechanized weaving, few factories remain in Iran that produce traditionally woven Termeh.
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The Safavid Dynasty and its patronage of the arts during the 16th – 18th centuries led to the advancement of the textile arts to a level that set a new standard. The textile industry consisted of urban centers that were supported by a local agricultural industry that produced silks and wools for the production of fine cloth and rugs. The cities of Qazvin, Esfahan, and Tabriz were set up as industrial centers and represented a significant revenue stream for the Safavid Sultans. The tradition of fine textile weaving continued through the 20th century, and the famed cities continued to create textiles that are still awe-inspiring to this day.
Termeh is one of the oldest traditional arts in Iran, this handicraft was woven as handmade. Today silk Termeh with different colors is finding in Yazd Province (Historical city and second ancient city by ranking of UNESCO), in this regard Termeh weaving is the oldest art works. This art is valuable until today because of meaningful designs in the form of flower design demonstrates to bow to God.
The Termeh made in Iran take a lead in comparison with Termeh made in Cashmere, the Cashmere made Termeh is famous for type of cotton of weaving which has been produced by wild goat wool, goat living in Himalaya Mountains, this kind of wool is available for weaver living in Cashmere but Iranian artists use the wool only produced trough the Iran.
The designs, ornaments paintings and decorations are created by digit form in the old days but nowadays it is used Chaharverdi Machine (this machine is used for weaving traditional textile).
Termeh weaving was in good market as of Safavid era in Yazd, today some of sellers are ready to sell this kind of handicraft and cloth through other cities such as Isfahan, Mashhad and Tehran.
Human and animal’s hair called as Sher(Hair) ,sher is kind of cloth which was weaved by Chaharverdi machine , sher weaving in Yazd Province , Isfahan and Silk Sher (Hair) weaving was in good market in Kashan and now is forgetting .
IRAN ART EXHIBITION: The first stage of weaving Termeh and providing raw material is related to wool producing , washing and dying with herbal colors, spinning. Weaving Termeh needs to good quality wool .
Weaving machine is made by traditional wooden machines in territory of producing the Termeh by industrial developers. This machine is Chaharverdi which moving by pedals bottom of the weaver’s foot. After providing the raw material and weaving , the second stage is to warp .
When the Termeh machine needs a stipular machine , the craftsman located the behind the machine and stipular machine insert above it then they delineate on cloth .
Termeh weaving is more delicate in such a way that every weaver only able to weave 20 to 25 centimeter of cloth.
The colors used for Termeh is red, orange, jujube red, green and black , the design and painting such as flower, trees, Amiri, ribbed ,almond tree ,etc.
IRAN ART EXHIBITION: Termeh as one of the valuable cloths has a lot consumption , in this regard we can find it in different sizes. Some of its application such as:
1- Type of Termeh in the name of SHAWL CHARGHADI (shawl) in sizes 150*150 , for using as table cloth and bundle.
2- Shal bandi a type of Termeh like vespiary, for using as table cloth and bundle .
3- Ribbed shawl as width and narrow .
4- Atabak shawl as Termeh made in Cashmere , this kind of Termeh it was expensive and used for sumptuous dress.
5- Termeh shawl was decorated as flower and hartshorn and used for dress .
6- Emerald color shawl with green color.
Maintaining the Termeh
– In past
The Termeh is resistant because of warp and woof . light and humidity as two essential factors are effected on cloth and cause to pale of cloth. The black parts are sensitive against light and thermo.
This kind of cloth is sensitive and to be moth eaten , Termeh should keep against moth eaten , for washing we can use any kind of washer material , otherwise using chemical dying it is recommended that using laundry.
IRAN innovates a modern method for producing Termeh so, the cloths are weaving as water proof and anti-stain, this special factor leads to use more than the pasts.